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● UAV FOR URBAN PLANNING RESEARCH
UAV can carry digital camera to fly above the city, providing basis for the planning information system of urban development. It is widely applied in research of building density distribution rule, survey of site under construction, survey of humble houses and leaky sheds in central city, situation of road occupied by construction, survey of open-parking ground, space distribution of dumping site, supplementary argument of sewage treatment and reconstruction projects, and providing image materials for factory planning or transformation. Besides the application in urban change, development trend and transformation and urban map update, UAV can also be used in the survey of current urban situation, such as survey of land use, land registration, transportation and tourism resource, drawing urban greening distribution diagram, smoke pollution distribution diagram and water pollution distribution diagram, as well as urban environment survey, such as the aspect of three wastes pollution, geological disaster, urban public security monitoring.
● UAV FOR MINERAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SURVEY
Exploitation of mining areas in China causes destruction of ecological environment; the execution of mineral resource planning is not clear, lacking of subjective and effective data; without real-time monitoring, unlawful acts occur frequently. UAV remote sensing can detect the location of mineral resource exploitation (wellhead location), exploitation condition (exploiting or closed), mine type under exploitation (coal, iron...), exploitation way (open-air or underground), land occupation scope and land type, accumulation scope of solid waste, and the type of occupied land. UAV can also observe the disaster caused by the exploitation of mineral resource, including the scope of ground subsidence, the length of ground fracture, the location of collapse pit, the scope of mountain crack (collapse), the location of collapse, the location of landslide, the location of debris flow, the length (location) of river channel sedimentation, and the spontaneous combustion scope of coal field (coal stone). UAV can detect the information of ecological environment in mine, including the scope of destroyed land, the scope of damaged vegetation, the scope of dust pollution, the scope of water pollution, the scope of desertification, the scope of land reclamation, and the effect of mine environment governance. Cooperating with land management software, UAV low-altitude remote sensing can also provide the overall situation of mineral resource development with decision-making support system.
● UAV FOR AGRICULTURE LAND RESOURCE AND CROP RESOURCE
UAV remote sensing can rapidly estimate the planting area of crops, monitor the growth of crops, predict the yield, monitor the drought and irrigation of crops, and manage agricultural natural resources; interpret and judge problems met during agricultural production, such as plant diseases and insect pests, soil salinity and sodicity, soil nutrient status and water pollution; and monitor the change of agricultural ecological environment: grassland degradation, land desertification, water and soil loss, water environment pollution monitoring and supply and equipment plan of agricultural water environment resources.
● UAV FOR GEOLOGICAL DISASTER REMOTE SENSING
UAV can conduct geological disaster remote sensing, research, landslide disaster evaluation, danger forecast, disaster evaluation, and disaster reduction and prevention in areas such as large mountain engineering, railway and highway, and mountain towns, providing post-disaster relief and reconstruction with important basis. At present, geological disaster remote sensing surveying and monitoring technique, mainly including collapse, landslide and debris flow, has been basically matured. For example, UAV remote sensing can survey landslide distribution, scale and development environment around dam site and reservoir area, and evaluate the stability of dam site and reservoir, providing the construction of water-power engineering with basic information.
● UAV FOR RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION
The application of UAV remote sensing in railway construction includes judgment and interpretation of various special contents, aerial surveying and mapping, and providing information for the comparison and selection of route plan as well as the survey and design of route, such as geological and hydrological judgment and interpretation with remote sensing image to cooperate the comparison and selection of route plan. With remote sensing image, a large number of aerial surveying and mapping works are carried out to satisfy the demand of preliminary survey of railway design. The application of UAV remote sensing technique plays a good role in the selection of route and bridge crossing plan in early stage, and the survey of debris flow, collapse and landslide in later stage of railway construction engineering.
● UAV FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
By observing and shooting in the air from different aspects and in different times, UAV can interpret certain features of ground or underground relics with various marks including landform, geobody shadow, flood, frost and snow, soil humidity and vegetation. Under advantageous conditions, the information of certain underground relics can also be shown by interfering ground information. As the survey view of aerial remote sensing is expanded, it is easy to recognize certain relics and remains which look chaotic on the ground by subtle “interpretation mark”. Especially in areas with inconvenient transportation, severe natural condition and complicated landform where people are difficult to arrive (such as certain mountains, deserts, highlands and water web zones), archaeological survey with the method of interpreting by remote sensing image is the most rapid way. This method is widely applied in foreign countries, and is also very successful. For example, with archaeological survey of aerial remote sensing in Bavaria of Germany, the number of relics increases above 1/3. At the end of the 1980s, we accurately circled a section of “Great Wall of Jin Dynasty” (also called Genghis Khan Wall or Castle of Jin Dynasty) in the length of nearly one thousand kilometers covered by heavy snow with satellite image. The moat, crenel and ancient garrison city of the castle are clear in the picture, obtaining unexpected effect that field archaeological survey cannot compare.
● UAV FOR COAL FIRE INVESTIGATION
Spontaneous combustion of coal bed is one of the common disasters in northern coal fields of China, which loses a large number of coal resources. According to the introduction of existing materials, there is spontaneous combustion of coal bed in many coal fields. About 200 million tons of coal is lost every year in China, occupying 20% of the current annual exploitation amount in total all over the country. Meanwhile, a large number of harmful gases will be released, such as CO2, H2S and CO, seriously polluting atmosphere environment, causing ground collapse, and threatening the safety production of mine. The purpose of UAV coal fire investigation is providing coal bed combustion in specific mine lot with material and data, and serving the formulation of specific fire fighting plan, estimation of fire fighting expense, prediction of combustion trend and examination of fire fighting effect.
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