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UAV solution of forest fire prevention
The forest resource in China is relatively poor that the forest coverage rate is around 13% and per capita forest occupied area is only 1/6 of the global average. However, there is forest fire every year. How to solve the problem of forest fire prevention becomes the top priority of forestry work. At present, many new techniques and equipment are applied in foreign forest fire prevention, and the domestic application demand in such aspect also increases day by day. The input of forest protection increases gradually that satellite is applied for general survey of resource and monitoring of forest fire, and the use of UAV system is still in preliminary stage in the monitoring of forest fire.
Medium and low altitude monitoring system of UAV has technical characteristics of rapid mobility, low use cost and simple maintenance and operation. With rapid real-time cruising and monitoring ability, it is a new type of medium and low altitude real-time television imaging and infrared imaging quick acquiring system so that it has unique advantages in aspects of resource environment monitoring, forest fire monitoring, relief and command in areas that vehicles and people cannot reach.
Forestry is the main body of national ecological construction which plays the indispensable role in keeping economic and social development, and plays a great role in the process of biological evolution. There are 175 million hectares of forest, 12.456 billion cubic meters of growing stock, and 18.21% of forest coverage rate in China. China is a country rich in forest resource and a country with frequent forest fire. Materials provided by Fire Prevention Office of State Forestry Administration show that from 1950 to 2007, there are 22566 forest fires on average every year in China, with annual damaged forest area of nearly 977,500 hectares. A tremendous amount of manpower, material and money are cost in order to extinguish forest fire, and the loss caused by the destruction of forest resource and ecological environment due to forest fire is immeasurable.
Thus, how to apply hi-tech means to forest resource monitoring, discover, forecast and extinguish fire early, eliminate fire, and turn great fire to small fire has become an urgent and major subject of forest fire prevention work.
Domestic forestry fire prevention solution
The visibility above forest fire ground is extremely low so that even escort aircraft can arrive above the fire ground, observers cannot observe the situation of ground fire in details. Under such circumstance, there is also potential safety hazard for flight. UAV can overcome such disadvantage of escort aircraft, and perform task of fire surveillance and detection at any time by carrying camera equipment and image transmission equipment. Ground personnel can stay current with fire trend at any time by receiving the microwave signal from UAV. UAV can scout the forest area in the air around the clock so as to discover fire and report fire location in time so that people can take action to eliminate the fire in preliminary stage. Colored CCD mission payload is equipped on UAV so that it can inspect the forest area in the air according to preset flight path, and transmit the image data acquired back to ground TT&C station. And ground TT&C station will transmit the real-time image to fire prevention department on duty by network. For suspect point or area, people can change the flight path and height of UAV for detailed investigation by remote control command. Detailed image will be transmitted back to the ground by wireless link. For areas with fire, UAV can conduct fire trend observation in the air so that fire fighting command department can rapidly and effectively organize and deploy fire fighting team, which improves the efficiency of fire fighting and prevents the casualty of fire fighters.
Equipped with colored CCD mission payload or infrared detection mission payload, UAV can observe the ground fire in real time from the flight height of 800 to 2000m from the ground, and transmit the image data acquired back to the ground in real time, which provides ground fire department with fire trend information, such as geographical coordinates (longitude and latitude), area of fire ground, boundary of fire ground and spreading trend of fire, making fire department rapidly deploy personnel for firefighting work in key areas, timely inform fire fighters to evacuate from dangerous areas, and provide fire fighters with evacuation route according to the image material of fire ground.
Such system can also equip front-line ground firefighting teams with ground portable image receiving equipment. Fire ground image acquired by UAV in the air can be transmitted to the ground in broadcast mode so that front-line fire forces can receive trend image and data in any area of the fire ground in real time, further improving the firefighting efficiency of fire forces. For areas where open fire has been extinguished, UAV can survey in the air so as to timely discover existing dying fire and effectively prevent the fire from after-combustion depending on observing the situation of dying fire which observers cannot observe in the air with naked eye. When the burned area is relatively large, ground personnel need to seek for dying fire so that a large number of personnel is required and it is not good for personnel’s safety. UAV is equipped with infrared detecting mission equipment to conduct infrared detection to burned area. Infrared detecting equipment can penetrate smoke to sense the surface temperature. With cooled infrared detecting mission equipment, the distance of infrared detection can be increased and the precision of sensitive temperature can be improved. UAV can acquire the complete image of surface temperature distribution condition of the fire ground by infrared detecting mission payload to transmit infrared detection image of the fire ground back to the ground in real time so that fire protection command can know about fire control effect in time and deploy fire fighters to conduct key prevention and extinguish dying fire in hidden trouble points and areas in time. By installing colored CCD mission payload, UAV can observe the burned area in the air, acquire the real-time image of forest fire damage evaluation, and acquire more detailed image data of key areas.
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